Milena Penkowa is a former Danish neuroscientist. In 2010 she was accused of scientific misconduct, as her graduate …
In 1903 French physicist Prosper-René Blondlot described N-rays, a form of radiation. Different reputable physicist failed to replicate the effects. American physicist Robert W. Wood went to Blondlot to see how he himself provoked the N-rays. Secretly Wood removed an essential prism from the experimental apparatus, yet the experimenters still said they observed N-rays. It seemed that N-rays were a purely subjective phenomenon, because scientists recorded data that matched their expectations. The incident is used as a cautionary tale among scientists on the dangers of error introduced by experimenter bias.
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